A Publication of the Indianapolis Civil War Round Table – March 2002
President – Dave Sutherland Secretary – Dr. Betty Enloe
Vice President – Dr. Lloyd Hunter Treasurer – Doug Wagner
Hardtack Editor – Debby Chestnut
March 11, 2002
Monday – 7:30 p.m. at the Indiana Historical Society
450 W. Ohio St.
(Parking in lot north of the Society off New York St. – Please enter via Northeast Door)
John Hunt Morgan: Then and Now
Confederate General John Hunt Morgan was responsible for the most significant military activity to take place in Indiana during the American Civil War. With the intent of carrying the war to the north and drawing off Union forces that were moving south through Tennessee, Morgan and his 2,000 cavalrymen swept into the Hoosier State and seven of its southeastern counties in July 1863. His Great Raid began in Kentucky, penetrated into Indiana, and did not end until his capture in northwest Ohio. At our March meeting, Richard Skidmore, a good friend and former President of our Round Table, will take us along the route of Morgan’s Raid, helping us to understand this fascinating, free-spirited, at times downright irresponsible Confederate leader and to relive his intervention into Indiana in 1863. In addition, Dick’s slide program will describe the steps being taken to establish the John Hunt Morgan Heritage Trail, a major project of which he is serving as Coordinator.
About the Speaker: A native Hoosier and graduate of Indiana State University, Dick Skidmore has served as president of four Civil War Round Tables. He has edited two books, including The Civil War Journal of Billy Davis, and written several articles on Indiana soldiers in the conflict. He has also contributed the Civil War entry in The Encyclopedia of Indianapolis. Dick coordinated the preservation of 160 military oil portraits at the Indiana Veterans’ Home, mostly the works of Alexander Lawrie. In 1996, the Indiana Historical Society named him a Hoosier Historian in recognition of his contributions to the Society and its work. Dick resides in Hanover, Indiana, with his wife, Wilda, who shares his Civil War enthusiasm.
Be sure and invite a friend to hear our speaker.
On behalf of the Nominating Committee, John and Marilyn Hoffman and Gerald Jones, the following nominees were presented and unanimously voted in as the new officers for the ICWRT’s 2002-2003 Campaign. CONGRATULATIONS!
President: Dr. Lloyd Hunter Vice President: Steven Hill
Also, the following Board Members have agreed to continue in their positions for the the 2002-2003 campaign:
Secretary: Dr. Betty Enloe Hardtack Editor: Debby Chestnut
Treasurer: Douglas Wagner Quiz Master: Tony Trimble Hardtack Distribution: Dorothy Jones/Peg Bertelli
The Round Table is still looking for volunteer authors to help research and write our 50th (l955-2005) anniversary history booklet plus an article for the Indiana Historical Society and Indiana newspapers. Nikki Schofield has agreed to assist in this effort. If you are interested, please contact Jim Bishop at 248-8100.
Also looking for volunteers to assist Robert Dorn in greeting current members and recruiting new Round Table members. If interested, see Dave Sutherland.
Please send book reviews, interesting articles, etc. to place in the Hardtack to me at the following: Debby Chestnut, 441 S. Catherwood Ave., Indianapolis, 46219; E-Mail: firstname.lastname@example.org or email@example.com. Phone: 356-5117 (home) or 226-4101 (work):Fax: 226-3444. Deadline for April Hardtack: March 22nd.
By Tony Trimble
1. What unusual wound was suffered by General James A. Smith during the defense
of Tunnel Hill?
2. Name the former Confederate who joined the Republican Party, supported Grant for
president, and was appointed Consul to Hong Kong by Hayes.
3. Of what General was it said, “He’s hell on retreat!”?
4. As a secret negotiator for the Confederate government, Congressman Duncan Kenner
offered what concession to England and France in return for recognition?
5. From what elected office was James G. Berdet required to resign as a condition of his
release from Fort Delaware?
¨ ICWRT’s 2002 Tour: Confederate Invasion of Kentucky and Indiana – June 24 to June 28. Tour will include Pleasant Hill, Shakertown, Perryville Battlefield, Mumfordville, Civil War Museum at Bardstown, John Hunt Morgan’s Raid in southern Indiana and many other exciting events. Estimated cost: $325.00, payable in two installments. Itinerary is now complete. If interested, please contact Nikki Schofield at 328-8782 or e-mail at: firstname.lastname@example.org.
¨ Annual Midwest Civil War Round Table Conference: Hosted by the Chicago and Milwaukee CWRT’s- April 19-21 at Lisle, Illinois, 20 miles west of Chicago. For additional information check the Chicago Civil War Round Table or Milwaukee Civil War Round Table websites. Update: Cost of conference: $125.00, which includes reception on Friday night, lunch and dinner on Saturday, breaks, and the entire program on Friday and Saturday. There will be many good speakers including Dr. John Marszalek, author of Sherman’s Other War; Craig Symonds, author of Stonewall of the West, Patrick Cleburne; and Dr. James Robertson will be keynote speaker on Stonewall Jackson. Please contact Lance Herdegen, Institute for Civil War Studies at 262-524-7198 for a complete agenda and registration form.
¨ Book Discussion Series at Danville Public Library – March 11: Coburn’s Brigade by Larry Ligget & Frank Welcher and presented by Larry Ligget. April 11: Killer Angels by Michael Shaara. Presented by history teacher, Christ Cavanaugh. The programs begin at 7:00 p.m. There is no charge but registration is requested. To register, visit the Adult Dept. of the library or call (317)745-2604.
¨ Gettysburg Trip – May 22, 2002 – Offered by Ambassadair to club members, however if there is a minimum of 10 persons, they will allow travel with a $25 per person limited member fee as long as one traveler is an Ambassadair member. Cost is $259 per person and includes non-stop air fair from Indianapolis, coach transfers, and itinerary. Arrive Harrisburg and transfer via motorcoach and arrive Gettysburg about 11:30 a.m. Cost includes: Soup and Salad Buffet at historic Herr Tavern, visit and highlighted commentary of Cyclorama, guided 25 mile tour of Gettysburg Battlefield, A. Lincoln Speaks, a 45 minute first person interpreter, Lantern Walk-discussion on effects of battle on the local residents. Depart Gettysburg at 7:30 p.m. If interested contact Joyce Duvall at 317-240-7519 or e-mail at email@example.com
Indiana Centennial Celebration
The event is being co-sponsored by the Indiana War Memorial Commission along with the Monument Centennial committee. Friday: Living history all day for students followed by a welcome reception and soiree on the Canal, hosted in conjunction with the Indiana Historical Society Museum. Saturday: Military parade to the monument and the recreation of the original May 15, l902 “Dedication to the Silent Victors” of the Soldiers and Sailors Monument. Saturday evening a Grand Military Ball will be held in the Indiana State House Rotunda. Carriage rides available during event at a small charge. All Union and GAR impressions are invited. Time for scheduled events are still in the process of being set up. For information, contact the Monument Centennial committee, 7636 West County Road South, Connersville, IN 47331 or call the Indiana War Memorial at 233-8505.
Confederate Stockade Purchase Completed
The Friends of the Florence Stockade have recently completed the purchase of l6 acres of the 26 acres of the original stockade site where upwards of 16,000 Union prisoners were held captive in Florence, SC, during the period September l864 through February 1865. In that short period, 2,800 prisoners died from malnutrition and disease and were buried in an adjacent field, know known as the Florence National Cemetery.
Funds for the $31,340 purchase were raised from members, civic organizations and by a matching grant from a Florence foundation. The land was owned by Andy Keels, a descendant of a long line of family owners of the property. Andy, through his
love of history of the place, made it possible for the land to be dedicated as a Civil War Heritage location. The significance of this site is the large “Earthberms”, totaling over 1,000 feet in length along 3 sides of the old stockade that remain hidden in the woods and swampy lowlands along a forgotten little creek that provided the only water for the prisoners. These berms, erected by slaves along the vertical log wall of the prison, provided a walkway for the guards and helped to stop the tunneling of escape efforts; probably the best preserved outdoor prison from Civil War times.
The City of Florence owns the 10 acre balance of the stockade site and is responding favorably to the Friends request for consideration of study, planning and development of a Heritage Park that would include reproducing a portion of the walls, main gate, hospital and guard house.
The property is located off US Route 95 at Florence, SC, on Stockade Road, just off National Cemetery Road. A stop at the National Military Cemetery is well worth while as it contains the known headstones of Union soldiers who died in the stockade along with long rows of trench burials where names were lost after hostilities ceased, all 2300 . The Friends has researched the identity of those buried in trenches and have verified the names of 1,500. A copy of those names are available at the visitor’s center.
FUNDS USS MONITOR SALVAGE OPERATION
The Department of Defense has announced that it will provide more than $6.5 million in Fiscal 2002 funding from the DOD Legacy Resource Management Program to continue the Navy's salvage operation to recover the Civil War-Era USS Monitor's 120-ton turret and associated artifacts. DOD began funding the conservation effort in fiscal 2000 to assist in the recovery of valuable Monitor components while enhancing the Navy diving and salvage capability through operational training.
Assistant Deputy Under Secretary of Defense for Environment John Paul Woodley
Jr. oversees the DOD Legacy Program that provides funds to the Naval Sea Systems Command (NAVSEA) for selective recovery of portions of the Monitor. NAVSEA provides program management support through engineering services, diving oversight and coordination of fleet commands. The Mobile Diving and Salvage Unit (MDSU) TWO, based at Norfolk, serves as the Navy on scene commander. As of 2001, dive teams have recovered the ship's cast-iron propeller, propeller shaft, and engine. The goal of the 2002 expedition will be retrieval of the Monitor's turret that detached from the vessel when it sank 240 feet to the bottom of the Atlantic Ocean, off Cape Hatteras, N.C. and came to rest under the ship's stern.
The federal government designated the Mariners' Museum in Newport News, Va.,
As custodian of the artifacts and archives of the Civil War ironclad.
Conscientious Objectors In The Civil War
several pacifist religious groups conflicted with Union and Confederate
officials to defend their conscientious scruples against bearing arms. They
tended to suffer most severely in the South, where manpower shortages, a
martial spirit, and invading armies left little sympathy for men unwilling to
fight. But under each of the opposing governments they sometimes endured
violent persecution by civilians, brutal punishment by military authorities,
and death by firing squad.The membership of smaller sects such as Dunkards,
Amanists, and Schwenkfelders varied between 800 and 1,200. The largest
politically active sects, the Society of Friends (Quakers) and the Mennonites,
counted well over 200,000 members in 1860; most lived in the North. Shaker and
Quaker leaders sought blanket exemptions for their draft-age men, but most
cases throughout the war were resolved individually. Often draftees reported
voluntarily to instruction camps, then either refused to serve in any military
capacity or requested assignments in hospitals; others expressed willingness to
support the war effort by furnishing supplies to the army. Lincoln accepted
these alternatives and encouraged objectors to apply for exemptions, thus
delaying any legislative attempt to address the problem until the draft became
an issue in August 1863.
After passing the South's first Conscription act, 16 April 1862, which made no provision for pacifist exemptions, Confederate politicians were prodded into finding solutions acceptable to dissenting religious groups. Some states tried to deal with the problem locally: North Carolina accepted objectors for hospital duty or substitute work in salt mines. But the revised Confederate Exemption Act of Oct. 1862 included a national solution, exempting Quakers, Nazarenes, Mennonites, and Dunkards, provided they furnished substitutes or paid a $500 exemption tax. Some pacifists objected to supplying either men or money to support the fighting, but most complied until the increasing scarcity of both made the alternatives nearly impossible. The difficulty of collecting the exemption fee finally forced the government to abandon the attempt. The October act placed pursuit of conscientious objectors under army control, where pacifists found unexpected sympathy from military leaders who believed using force against them to be a wasted effort. Lt. Gen. Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson recommended allowing pacifists to produce supplies or serve as NonCombatants.
Pacifists in combat-torn regions such as the Shenandoah Valley hid or fled with their families to escape being hunted by home guards. By war's end Kentucky Shakers at Pleasant Hill reported having fed at least 50,000 soldiers from both armies and estimated losses in supplies, stock, and buildings at $1 00,000. Some Southern pacifists did enlist voluntarily for combat positions, among them a few Shakers and 6-20 Quakers; 2 companies of Moravian men from Forsyth Cty., N.C., were also mustered into the army in June 1861. Most were expelled from their sects during the war but were readmitted afterward.
Greater manpower resources and more tolerant attitudes in general eased the pressures on Northern pacifists. Congress objected to exempting specific religious sects for fear of missing the smaller ones, and a blanket exemption for all conscientious objectors would have invited abuse. Yet the compromise, providing a substitute or paying a $300 commutation fee, violated the principles of men who considered either alternative a contribution to the bloodshed. The Militia Act of 1862 made no provision for conscientious objectors; though the Draft Act of 1863 did, it failed to define "conscientious objector," again resulting in a flood of individual petitions from draftees. In December 1863 Secretary of War Edwin M. Stanton eased the situation by paroling all conscientious objectors held in custody and ordering no more to be called.
One hundred and forty-three Quakers reportedly enlisted as Union soldiers, but the majority of their brethren and of all pacifists served in hospitals, cared for sick soldiers in their homes, or worked among the Contrabands. Finally, in Feb. 1864, Congress dealt with the question by ruling pacifists subject to the draft but assuring noncombatant assignments to members of those religious groups whose articles of faith clearly expressed opposition to bearing arms. They were also given the option of paying $300 for the relief of sick and wounded soldiers.
Though neither government solved the problem of how to deal with conscientious objectors, officials for the first time debated the issue at the national level, offering the option of noncombatant service which remained in effect through World War 1.
Source: "Historical Times Encyclopedia of the Civil War"
Ted Ewing of Sarasota, FL asks if anyone has come across information about his ancestor, Milton Ewing of the 130th Indiana Infantry, 23rd Corps. Milton was born in Peru, IN and died in Winamac, IN. If you have chanced to see any information about Milton Ewing, please communicate with Ted at firstname.lastname@example.org or mail to 7377 Regina Royale in Sarasota, FL 34238.
Some Civil War Humor
The bombastic John Pope, a terrible Union general, so often signed his dispatches “headquarters in the saddle” that Lincoln finally said Pope had his headquarters where his hindquarters ought to be.
Campaign 2001-2002 Presenter’s & Speakers
MEETING DATES PRESENTER SUBJECT
September 10, 2001 Nikki Schofield The Confederate Secret
Service in Canada
October 8, 2001 Bill Anderson The 19th Michigan
November 12, 2001 David Fraley The Battle of Franklin, TN
December 10, 2001 Dale Phillips Ben Butler and the Occupation
of New Orleans
January 14, 2002 Dan Mitchell The Mississippi
February 11, 2002 Steve Jackson My Boys in Blue: A Tribute
March 11, 2002 Dick Skidmore John Hunt Morgan: Then and Now
April 8, 2002 Peter Carmichael TBA
May 13, 2002 Gary Ecelbarger Frederick W. Lander: The Great
Natural American Soldier
June 10, 2002 Herman Hattaway Presidency of Jefferson Davis
Indianapolis Civil War Round Table
27th Indiana Volunteer Infantry Regiment
Regimental Flag Replication Project
As we announced at the January meeting, the ICWRT has the opportunity of assisting the Indiana War Memorial Commission in its program to preserve and replicate the flags of Indiana regiments that served in the Civil War. We are seeking to replicate the regimental flag for the 27th Indiana Volunteer Infantry Regiment, the regiment that we have adopted for Gettysburg.
The cost for replicating the flag is $1,200. ICWRT will match member contributions up to a total half that amount, $600.00. We will not be collecting money until members have pledged an amount sufficient, with the ICWRT matching funds, of contracting for replicating the flag. However, we would ask members who are interested to fill out a pledge form so that we can determine when we have the necessary funds.
Please mail the pledge to
1930 New Haven Drive
Indianapolis, IN 46231
Or hand it to Ray Shortridge at a monthly meeting.
Do not include a check; ICWRT will redeem the pledge when sufficient funds have been pledged to cover the cost of replicating the regimental flag.
I pledge $ __________ . ___ to the flag replication project.
Street Address: ……………………………………………
City: …………………………………. State: …….. ZIP: ………………..
Phone #: ……………………………… Email: ……………………………….